The introduce something new into the human body requires a great degree of experiments to ensure the safety and potency of the substance. However, human subjects cannot be used to experiment medicine for the first time therefore the transgenic animals gained their popularity in the recent days. Transgenic animals are subjected to deliberate modification of their genome to try and test the efficacy of recombinant DNA technology. The voluntary change in the genetic makeup of an individual lads the most dangerous mutation-induced mutation. During the process, there is a chance that the animal could be harmed or even killed if the procedure is wrongly implemented. The principal aim of the procedure is not to treat the animals but to utilize them as a medium of introducing the genetic materials so that they can be injected to human subjects in case if the animal is safe after the experiment. The most common procedure involved in the transgenic process is the DNA recombinant technology. The recombinant DNA is transmitted through the germ-line of the animal into the host. Germ-line introduction help to distribute the effect of treatment evenly through all the cells. The most common transgenic animal ismice.Some of the other animals like rabbits, pigs, sheep, cows, and fish have also been proved to be good for transgenic experiments. This article describes the process of DNA injection by using transgenic animals.
1. DNA microinjection
Microinjection is the transfer of a cloned gene combinations into the host. Gene cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located and copied (cloned) out of DNA of an organism to artificially modify them according to the requirement.Cloning can be done by taking genes of 2 different species or the same species. Later on, the cloned gene combination is transferred to the pronucleus of a reproductive cell.
2. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer
A retrovirus is used as vectors to transfer the cloned and hybridized genetic material into the host cell. This can magnify the degree of biodiversity in the target progeny.
3. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer
Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer is the prior insertion of the desired DNA combinations into an in vitro( into the uterus) culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Stem cells are the primordial cells that later differentiated into somatic or germ cells. Consequently, the genetic material of every cell in the body is being altered.
Benefits from transgenic animals
Many transgenic animals are used to identify the safety of a newly released biological or chemical products such as drugs and vaccines. Some of the laboratory tests, therapies, diagnostic tools cannot be directly implemented on the human subjects unless we reckon the possible negative effect of the given sample. However, experimenting on the animals without knowing the outcome is ethically wrong, therefore every effort must be made to judge the outcome of an experiment in advance.
Uses of transgenic animals
1. For genetic study:
This is done by genetically designing the animal`s genes. Doing this aid in understanding how genes are regulated and what are their influences on the human anatomy, physiology, development, and growth. For example, a study of ampicillin-resistant genes can be carried out by modifying the animal`s genes and then inject the drug to see it`s efficacy.
2. In pathology:
Pathology is a branch of medical science to study the disease causation and factors involved in the disease causation. The transgenic animals are so designed to enhance human understanding of disease causation. In the past, many transgenic models and applications have helped in identifying genetic disorders, blood disorders such as leukaemia, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. In the field of toxicology, it is used as a detective agency of toxins.
3. As a product:
Transgenic animals can be used to generate the most expensive biological products through DNA recombination. It is carried out by introducing a portion of artificially coded DNA to the target cells. It is predominantly used in the field of pharmaceuticals to understand the product efficacy. It helps to increase milk yield, meat production and the yield of livestock through injecting genetically engineered hormones.
4. To test the vaccine safety:
For testing the vaccine safety, Guinea pigs and laboratory mice are transgenically used. Vaccines are injected to the animals at lower doses before using them in human subjects. This will help in understanding the adverse effects of a newly introduced vaccine. For example, the polio vaccine has been used this way.
Ethical concerns in transgenesis
A. Regulations from governmental organizations:
It is important to obtain valid permission from the government and the administrative department of the concerned area before proceeding. One should understand that it is not an easy job to introduce a drug or DNA with a potentially risky for animals. Genetically modifying the organisms might even kill the host. Government has set up organizations like GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee) to delimit the experiments and approve the operations only if they are immensely important at this stage.
B. Patent rights violation( Biopiracy):
Biopiracy is the commercial use of biological resources without a legal licence from the regulating bodies. When a product is indigenous to a territory or country, others cannot use them without buying the patent rights from where the product originated. One of the well-known example was the patent rights violation against Indian Basmati rice. India has around 27 documented varieties of Basmati rice. In the year 1997, one of the American companies purchased patent rights on Basmati rice through the US Patent and Trademark Office. That had no issues in reselling the imported grains in the US markets.
Some of the questions we need to address here when we experiment on an animal are
1. Are we exploiting animal species by changing their natural form?
2. Are we trying to blur the lines between individual species by creating transgenic combinations?
3. Are we aware of the future- consequences of the transgenic procedures?
4. Are we really benefiting or harming the mankind?
5. Are we greedy ? are we using animals for the profit?
6. Are we trying to manipulate the whole nature of human beings which is quite contrary to nature`s law?
7. Are we the reason for unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences as a result of the procedure?