States of matter

Introduction

Matter is a form of substance exist in a specified state. A state is the form in which a substance is presented. The state of a substance varies according to the factors  (external and internal factors) that influence on the matter. Some of the factors like pressure, temperature, energy, electromagnetic influence, chemical forces, and biological forces are closely linked with the state of matter. These factors can convert the matter from one state to another. In addition, a matter can be visible or invisible,  hard or soft, stable or unstable. However, the common factor of all the matter is the atoms. An atom is the smallest particle carrying protons, neutrons and electrons. Every substance has a different atomic number and molecular status characterized by a change in the number and arrangement of protons, neutrons and electrons. Going forward, a group of atoms form bonds that interlink the molecules, and molecules integrate to form a compound or group of elements. Let us discuss in brief about some of the states of matter. The following articles describe the 7 states of matter. Some of them are most common (solid, liquid, gas, and plasma), liquid crystal exists in the intermediate state. Bose-Einstein condensates and neutron-degenerate matter are the rare forms.

 

Solids

Solids have particles packed tightly together. Surrounding this, the electrons keep constantly moving. In a solid-state, there is very low kinetic energy as the matter is closely bound with no scope for free movement. Solids are characterized by a high density, as well as high bond energy when they are released. 

 

Liquids

When compared to solids, liquid particles are arranged loosely hence there is free flow in nature. Although liquid lack a particular shape, they will conform to the shape of its container hence they can be measured. Much like solids, liquids are also difficult to compress.

 

Gas

Gas particles, on the other hand, gases are freely movable, with a free dispersion of particles. Liquids have a great amount of kinetic energy. Unlike other states,  gas has no definite shape or volume. The gas has an ability to react to heat and cold quickly which can expand or condense its state based on the level of temperature that a gas experience.

 

Plasma

It is an unusual state of matter on the earth, but the universe has an abundance of plasma. Scientists have proofs that stars are the superheated balls of plasma. Hence, plasma has highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy.

 

Bose-Einstein condensate

It was proposed as a state of matter quite recently in the year 1995. Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman conducted experiments at the Joint Institute for Lab Astrophysics (by cooling the sample of rubidium to few degrees of absolute zero. Cooling has brought their atoms to a neutral state. This was because there was almost no kinetic energy being transferred from one atom to another in their condensed state.

 

Liquid crystals

It is a state that has the properties of both the conventional liquids and those of solid crystals. A liquid crystal can flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way.

 

Degenerate matter

It has the highest density with fermionic matter that yields a high state of kinetic energy to satisfy the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Degenerate matter is mainly used in astrophysics to refer to dense stellar objects where gravitational pressure is so extreme that quantum mechanical effects are significant.

 

Change in the states of matter 

Having said that factors like heat, temperature, cold, pressure, force and other factors can influence the state of matter. Solid on heating can turn liquid and liquid on heating turn into vapour. Condensing the vapours lead to liquid and further condensation can convert the liquid into a solid ice cube.

 



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