Science and the scientific method

Introduction

Science is an inquiry about the truths and empirical evidences of a phenomenon. It is the systematic body of knowledge to address why, where, what, how and which aspects of an underlying subject. Furthermore, the scientific method is a logical deduction of a measurable formula in an easy to understand -way. The sequence of science includes observing, recording, analysing and generalizing the conclusions. Science is one of the most preferable disciplines among all. Because,  as a subject, it is inherently able to explain things in a clearly defined, empirical, measurable and descriptive way. In a discipline like physics ( a science), there is the least scope for the irrational and baseless invention, for example, it is illogical to say that earth is much lighter hence it revolves around the sun. Scientific evidences have proved that gravitation is the reason behind the elliptical movement of the earth around the sun.

 

Steps of a scientific method

The scientific method is not a random task of knitting a story around a given phenomenon. Rather, it is a series of events being conducted under a controlled environment. The following are some of the steps of the scientific method.

A. Making observation.

B. Making a list of questions.

C. Prepare a list of explanations for each question or form a hypothesis.

D. Testing the prediction.

E. Generalizing the results

F. Application of the results to make hypotheses or predictions.

 

Steps of Scientific method

 

 

Although the scientific method is used in almost every domain, in this section let’s be specific to the physics. The following are some of the sequential steps followed in science and scientific method.

1. Making observation

Observation doesn’t simply mean a vague look at things in a perspective of oneself but it is in the perspective of how the whole world looks at it. In other words, observation must have a completely acceptable theory with an acceptable degree of rationalization. For example, having said that earth revolves around the sun because of gravitation, this statement must be based on the clearly observable facts. The findings out of observation must be universally acceptable. Another essential component of making an observation is that there must be a proper application of scientific tools while observing. For example, the use of a telescope to watch the movement of earth proves to be a supportive device that aids in good observation of planets, and other celestial bodies.

2. Making a list of questions

This will ensure to list out all the possible options to find the scientific evidence for the observations being made previously. If you take an example of the phenomenon of the earth revolving around the sun,  few questions that can be enlisted are, how fast the earth is revolving around, what is the duration required for the earth to finish one complete round? which direction does it revolve? From where the rotation begins and which point it ends? These questions need to be logical, clear and makes sense.

3. Prepare a list of explanations for each question or form a hypothesis

At this stage, each question must be screened and separated systematically. Write the possible solutions under each prompt with a proper explanation and if possible include some examples. The answers deduced against the questions must be prioritized in such a way that, the most sensible answer to be pinned to the top of the list and the least sensible explanation go to the bottom of the list. For example, if there was a question on how long does it take for the earth to revolve around the sun, then this can be answered with at least 5 options say, 5 hours, 24 hours, 1 year, 1 week and so on but the answer that makes sense (1 year) should be considered.  A hypothesis is although an assumption, it must follow an option that addresses the question.

4. Testing the predictions

At this stage, the predictions must be tested with evidence. For example, the earth takes 365 days to finish its journey around the orbit must have some visual, auditory or any other form of clues captured through devices such as a telescope, videos, etc. A prediction is an outcome of what people expect or what a sensible mind thinks but not what everyone argues.

5. Generalizing the results

This is the most important phase and this help in applying the phenomenon under various settings. For example, if an inventor has invented a new type of laboratory device useful for physics, the same equipment must be applied all over the world. Only then the equipment is generalizable Generalizing is the process of convincing everyone about the findings so that every individual agrees with the findings.

6. Application of the results to make hypotheses or predictions

After doing all the homework, things must be put to work. At this phase, the research must enter into the literature such as books, periodicals and news so that people can apply or use the scientific invention. It is important to publish and market the idea so that people can benefit.

 

Questions

  1. What is a scientific method? Mention the steps of a scientific process.
  2. What is scientific observation? Give an example.
  3. What is a hypothesis? Explain.
  4. Describe the sequence of scientific method in detail.

 

 



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