Introduction to Chemistry

 

Introduction

The world has an abundance of matters. Every matter that we see today is the result of a combination of many chemical ingredients. For example, the formation of curd from milk, fermentation of idli batter, and preparation of bread, in all these cases the biological and chemical agents play a vital role. Chemistry is the branch of science dealing with the nature of matter, and the way the different matter combine and produce the products. It is a practical area mainly concerned with the investigation of the properties of matter, underlying reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances. This article will further examine the nature, scope, and branches of chemistry.  By definition “Chemistry is the science that studies the matter, their properties, composition as well as reactivity”.

1. Introduction

2. Nature and origin of chemistry

3. Branches of Chemistry

     3.1 Physical chemistry

     3.2 Organic chemistry.

     3.3 Inorganic chemistry

     3.4 Analytical chemistry

4. Biochemistry

5. A brief history of chemistry 

Nature and origin of chemistry

Chemistry is one of the oldest disciplines. Our ancestors accidentally learned how the fire is produced by friction followed by many inventions as a result, chemistry has grown into an independent discipline. Chemistry is found both inside and outside the human body. In our day-to-day life, we see could see many examples of how chemistry help. For instance, formation yoghurt, bread making, preparation of processed food products and decomposition of dead matter are some of the best examples of chemical processes. Within our body, chemistry contributes to a few life processes such as metabolism, cardiac cycle, digestion, urine formation. In the industrial sector, many products have been manufactured by basing the chemical reactions  for example, manufacturing some medicines, fertilizers, acids, alkalis, soaps, cosmetics and body products.

 

Branches of Chemistry

There are a multitude of branches in chemistry. Modern chemistry is classified into the following 5 main disciplines:

Physical chemistry: Physical chemistry deals with the study of microscopic properties atoms, and the related matters. Various areas that come under physical chemistry are rates of chemical reactions and the energy transfers that occur in reactions. It also helps to understand the chemical structure of physical materials at the molecular level.

Organic chemistry: It is the study of the chemistry of carbon and carbon-related compounds. Carbon is one of the complex and widely found compounds.

Inorganic chemistry: Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that non-carbon in their nature.  It is the science of some of the inorganic chemicals found in rocks and minerals. It is linked with the industrial chemistry that includes catalysis, materials science, pigments, paints, medicines, surfactants, coatings, etc.

Analytical chemistry: The main area of analytical chemistry is the composition of matter. It involves how to separate, identify, and quantify the chemicals in samples of matter. It is a way to grade or scale the percentage of various components present in a particular matter. It is applicable in forensic medicine, criminology, and some food industry.

Biochemistry: As the term, biochemistry refers to the chemistry of biological organisms (living and dead). Biochemistry helps us thunderstone the chemistry involved in bodily processes. Some of the examples are Kreb's cycle and maintenance of pH.  It is also widely applied in the fields of pathology, pharmacology, and medicine.

 

A brief history of chemistry 

Chemistry has evolved very much over a period of time. Some of the famous chemists have contributed a lot to the human fraternity. Antoine Lavoisier is known as the father of Chemistry. The following table briefs the milestones of the development of chemistry as a discipline.

Specific Time period

Events

300 BC - 300 AD

The Advent of the Alchemists

1700's

The advent of Phlogiston Theory and Coulomb's Law

1774-1794

Disproving of the Phlogiston Theory

1803

Dalton's Atomic Theory

1879

Discovery of cathode rays

1885

Discovery of  the proton

1895

Discovery of X-rays

1897

Discovery of  the electron and it`s properties  and the discovery of Radioactive Elements

1909

Discovery of Mass of the Electron

1911

Identified 3 Types of Radioactivity

1932

Researched The Neutron, Neutron Bombardment and Nuclear Fission

1934

Artificial Radioactive Elements

 



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