Differences between DNA and RNA

Although both are genetic materials, they perform almost the same functions but they differ in many ways. the following table helps us to understand how RNA and DNA are different.

DNA

RNA

DNA is made up of a sugar called 2-Deoxyribose.

RNA has Ribose sugar.

DNA has a double-helical model with each strand having a long chain of nucleotides.

RNA is a single-strand helix with shorter chains of nucleotides.

The bases of DNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

The bases of  RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.

DNA has the ability to undergo  self-replication

RNA is produced with the help of DNA.

DNA has base Pairing formula AT (adenine-thymine) and GC (guanine-cytosine).

Base Pairing in an RNA is  AU (adenine-uracil) as well as GC (guanine-cytosine).

In the case of DNA, Purine and Pyrimidine bases are equal in number.   

There is no such rule of the number of Purine and Pyrimidine bases.

DNA is located in the nucleus and mitochondria of a cell.

Depending on the type of RNA, this molecule is found in a cell’s nucleus, its cytoplasm, and its ribosome.

Functionally, It performs long-term storage of genetic information; the transmission of genetic information to make other cells and new organisms.

Functionally, It performs transfer of the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins. RNA is used to transmit genetic information in some organisms and may have been the molecule used to store genetic blueprints in primitive organisms.

 



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