Fundamental forces in nature

Introduction

Force is the law of nature and the world is led by an innate force. In our day to day life, we experience the force in many ways. Force and energy are sometimes used interchangeably becasue energy act as a raw material to force. There are many fundamental forces in nature. For every task, we must use some or the other form of force. If we would like to lift an object we use muscular strength, a vehicle uses petrol or diesel in order to generate an automotive force. In the past, scientists have attempted to explain the variety of forces existing in nature. Sir. Isaac Newton -a legend, for the first time explained the nature of forces through his famous laws of motion. He quoted, the most popular form of a natural force is the gravitational attraction between the 2 or more bodies. The natural forces broadly fall under  4 categories;  Gravitational force, Electromagnetic force, Strong nuclear force and the Weak nuclear force. Let us explore each type of force in detail.

1. Introduction

2. Gravitational force

3. Electromagnetic force

4. Strong nuclear force

5. Weak nuclear forces

6. Unification of Forces

 

Gravitational force

This is a universal force; an attractive pull produced by a body towards another body. Almost every object or life form existing on the earth has either attractive or repulsive force, a simple example is, we all are attracted towards the earth due to gravitation. A gravitational force is a weak force having the strength 6 × 10-39 . The effect of a gravitational force depends upon the mass (participating bodies) and also the distance between them. One of the best examples of gravitational force is the force of attraction between the sun and the earth. 

 

Electromagnetic force

Electromagnetic force is a result of 2 moving charges; electric force and magnetic force. They both move perpendicular to each other. In general, the forces between the 2 charged objects are classified into attractive or repulsive forces. The force is attractive for unlike charges and repulsive for like charges. Moving charges of the electric and magnetic fields emit a force known as the electromagnetic force. This is the 2nd strongest force having strength of 1/137 relative to the strongest force on the universe. The electromagnetic force is the result of combined action between the electric and magnetic fields alongside the particle of light called a photon. Electromagnetic forces were earlier viewed as separate and independent but in a true sense, they form a real pair complementing one another. The force of attraction or repulsion between the electric and magnetic fields is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In order for the electromagnetic pull or repulsion to happen, there must be 2 poles. As a universal principle,  2 similar poles repel each other( North-North or South-South) and the 2 opposite poles( North-South or vice-versa) attract each other.

 

Strong nuclear force

A nuclear force in an atom is responsible to keep the proton and neutron inside the nucleus. It is the strongest of all forces with a very short range around 10-15m. We all know the power of a nuclear weapon, amazingly one of the most devastative forces from ancient times. Nuclear force is equal to 6,000 trillion X trillion X trillion (that’s 39 zeroes after 6!) times more powerful than the gravitational force. The world has witnessed many tragic events as a result of nuclear weapons. One such disaster is the Hiroshima Nagasaki event that shook the world. But nuclear energy can be used for the wellbeing of human life. Many nuclear plants are in use for filling the shortfall of electricity from other sources. The force released during a nuclear action depends on their bond strength, in other words, the greater the bond strength, the more powerful is the nuclear force and vice-versa.

 

Weak nuclear forces

This is known as the weak force resulted in the weak interaction. One of the best examples is the energy emitted during β- decay. It is a weaker force but not as weak as the gravitational force. Another example of the weak nuclear force is the fusion reaction helping the sun to generate heat and light.

 

Unification of Forces

No force can exist alone, instead, they are interdependent. Scientists found that the combined forces can be very much helpful in many scientific innovations. The unification of different forces have brought many advancements in the discipline of physics. By using the theory of gravitation, Newton unified terrestrial and celestial domains. Oersted and Faraday showed that the electric and magnetic fields are not independent of each other. Maxwell successfully unified electromagnetism and optics. Albert Einstein although attempted to unify gravity and electromagnetism but couldn’t succeed. In general, unification is the calculative combination of weaker and stronger forces to create another form of energy that helps to aid day to day tasks.



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