Class 11 Biology most important topics

Biology as a subject, is an immensely important discipline leading  a number of opportunities as a student progresses towards higher education. The subject in itself is vast, interesting, diverse encompassing topics from Botany, Zoology, Human biology and some of the preventive areas of health. This section gives a brief topic list that was frequently on question papers out of the past 5 years . However, student can use this as a reference only. 




CBSE Class 11 Biology Exam Important Topics

Unit I Diversity of Living Organisms

Chapter1: The Living World

  1.  Need for classification (Biodiversity)

  2.  Three domains of life

  3.  Taxonomic categories , definition of terms like species, genus, class, phylum, kingdom etc

  4.  Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;

  5. Binomial nomenclature;

  6.  Tools for study of taxonomy museums,

  7. Zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.


Chapter 2: Biological Classification

  1. Five kingdom classification

  2. Kingdom Monera, salient features and classification of Monera

  3. Features and classification of Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom including Animalia

  4. Lichens, Viruses and Viroids


Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

  1. Differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

  2. Life-cycle of an angiosperm

  3. Salient features and classification of plants (Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae).


Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

  1. Basis of classification of animal kingdom

  2. Levels of Organisation in animals.

  3. Characteristic features of the different phyla in the animal kingdom ( table)

  4. Salient features and classification of animals,

  5. Explanation for Non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level.

  6. Differences between intracellular and extracellular digestion.

  7. Differences between, direct and indirect develop



Unit II Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

Chapter - 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

  1. Introduction to plant parts, morphology of different parts of flowering plants.

  2. Structural and functional organisation of   different parts of the body.

  3. Structure and functions of root, types, regions and modification of roots.

  4. Structure and functions of stem, types, regions and modification of stems.

  5. Structure and functions of flower, male and female parts of flower, inflorescence.

  6. Fruit and seeds, difference between monocots and dicots.


Chapter - 6: Anatomy of flowering Plants

  1. Types of plat tissues and tissue systems

  2. Monocot and dicot root, stem and seeds( differences)

  3. Wood-secondary growAnatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems.

Chapter - 7: Structural Organisation in Animals

  1. Systems in animals,

  2. Organization of animal organs and systems

  3. Different types of animal tissues; epithelium, connective, adipose, muscular, nervous

  4. Morphology, anatomy and functions of different body systems such as digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems of cockroach, worms, frog.




Unit III Cell: Structure and Function

Chapter 8: Cell - The Unit of Life

  1. Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life

  2. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells( differences)

  3. Structural and functional difference between plant cell and animal cell

  4. Cell wall and cell membrane(envelops)

  5. Cell organelles - structure and function

  1. Endomembrane system, Endoplasmic reticulum

  2. Golgi bodies

  3. Lysosomes

  4. Vacuoles

  5. Mitochondria

  6. Ribosomes

  7. Plastids

  8. Microbodies

  9. Cytoskeleton

  10. Cilia

  11. Flagell

  12. Centrioles (ultrastructure and function)

  13. Nucleus

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

  1. Analyzing chemical composition of cells

  2. Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules

  3. Primary and secondary metabolites and state of metabolism

  4. Structure and function of bio macromolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids

  5. Monomers and polymers, bonding or linking pattern.

  6. Enzymes - types, properties, enzyme actions, factors influencing enzymatic actions


 Chapter - 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

  1. Cell cycle, need for cell cycle, and different phases of cell cycle.

  2. Mitosis and meiosis, differences.

  3. Meiosis and their significance




Unit IV Plant Physiology

Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

  1. Biological mechanism of movement of water, gases and nutrients

  2. Cell to cell transport,

  3. Means of  transport; diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, Osmosis

  4. Plant-water relations, Water potential, Imbibition

  5. Plasmolysis :Long distance transport

  6. Transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, Symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;

  7. Transpiration, opening and closing of stomata;

  8. Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients

  9. Transport  of food

  10. Phloem transport

  11. Mass flow or pressure flow hypothesis


 Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

  1. Essential plant nutrients; macro  and micronutrients and their role.

  2. Methods to study the mineral requirements of plants. Basic idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition.

  3. Nutrition Deficiency symptoms in plants

  4. Mineral toxicity

  5. Mechanism of absorption of nutrients

  6. Nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle and biological nitrogen fixation

Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

  1. Photosynthesis, experiments to prove

  2. Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition

  3. Sites and pigments involved in  photosynthesis 

  4. Factors affecting photosynthesis

  5. Different phases of  photosynthesis

  6. Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation

  7. Chemiosmotic hypothesis

  8. Photorespiration

  9. C3 and C4 pathways


Chapter14: Respiration in Plants

  1. Evidences for plant respiration

  2. Exchange of gases; cellular respiration

  3. Fermentation, glycolysis, TCA cycle

  4. Electron Transport System (ETS) and Oxidative Phosphorylation

  5. Transport system (aerobic); energy relations; number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.


Chapter 15: Plant - Growth and Development

  1. Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation,

  2. Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth

  3. Plant growth and hormone regulators - Auxin, gibberellin, Cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;

  4. Vernalisation and Photoperiodism.




Unit V Human Physiology

Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

  1. Alimentary canal , structure and types of teeth, structure of tongue

  2. Digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones.

  3. Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

  4. Calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

  5. Common digestive disorders ; PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.


 Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

  1. Respiratory organs in animals (recall only)

  2. Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and  its regulation in humans

  3. Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration

  4. Respiratory volume

  5. Disorders related to respiration

  6. Asthma

  7. Emphysema

  8. Occupational respiratory diseases


Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

  1. Fluid compartments

  2. Plasma and  cellular composition of blood and blood groups

  3. Mechanism of coagulation of blood

  4. Composition of lymph and its function

  5. Human circulatory system: structure of human heart and blood vessels

  6. Physiology of CVS , cardiac cycle, cardiac output

  7. ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity;

  8. Disorders of circulatory system; hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.


Chapter- 19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

  1. Excretion and organs involved in human excretion

  2. Excretory products in human body

  3. Modes of excretion; Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism.

  4. Human excretory system – structure and  function

  5. Urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin – angiotensin

  6. Mechanism of concentration of the filtrate.

  7. Atrial  natriuretic factor

  8. ADH and diabetes insipidus

  9. Role of other organs in excretion

  10. Disorders of urinary system; Uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.


Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

  1. Joints and types of movement: ciliary, flagellar, and muscular.

  2. Skeletal muscles, classification and basic structure

  3. Role of contractile proteins and muscle contraction

  4. Skeletal system and its functions, bones.

  5. Joint disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, Tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.


Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination

  1. Neuron and nerves

  2. Nervous system in humans

  3. Central nervous system

  4. Peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system

  5. Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception

  6. Sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.


Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

  1. Endocrine glands and hormones

  2. Human endocrine system and endocrinal hormones; secretions from hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal body, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads

  3. Mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea)

  4. Role of hormones as messengers and regulators

  5. Hypo and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, gaiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease


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