Scope of Physics

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Introduction to physics

Physics is the oldest subject. From time immemorial, people realized that there is some natural force that is driving every act of nature, say it raining, or thunders, storms, the formation of clouds, etc. But there wasn’t really a scientific approach towards this phenomenon due to lack of theoretical explanation with formulae. Later on, as the science grew, physics has risen into many super-specializations such as the astronomy, nuclear physics, thermodynamics, optics, atomic physics, etc. Some of the significant topics for academic physics are mechanics, heat, thermodynamics, electromagnetic concepts,  optics, energy, force, units of measurement, atomic and nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. Every specialization serves some particular areas of interest and the same is applicable in physics. Each area is inter-related and dependent. Some of the essential areas of interest in physics are discussed further in this paragraph. Mechanics as a discipline deals with the motion of particles and general systems of particles. Heat and thermodynamics deals with how heat can change the dynamics, how heat and cold are related with volume, pressure, force, etc, for example; when the rice is being pressure cooked, the heat gets converted into pressure which is evident when we watch the weight being popped up as a result of pressure created by heat inside the cooker. Thermodynamics is also a subject related to volume changes that take place in a gas when the temperature is raised or cooled down. Electromagnetism is a discipline deals with 2 fields, namely electric field, and magnetic field; Many inventions have been made basing this discipline. Optics is to deal with surfaces of mirrors, glasses, its nature, and behaviours. Atomic and nuclear physics deals with the atoms, their structure, nature, distribution, and behaviours. The major areas in atomic physics are the study of protons, neutrons electrons, atomic weight, atomic force, atomic energy, and atomic composition. Nuclear physics is also a related field with atomic physics with mainstream being nuclear energy production, usage of nuclear energy for the benefit and their ill effects. Some of the specific postulations, laws.


Table Of Contents

1. Introduction to physics

2. Physics as a discipline

3. Factors responsible for the progress of                 physics

4. Hypothesis, axioms, and modals

5. Concept of classical physics and modern             physics


Physics as a discipline

Physics is a branch of natural science, where the name comes from a Greek word meaning ‘nature’. Physics describes natural phenomena in terms of a few theories and laws. There are two principals in physics. Unification and reduction. Unification is using a single theory to explain different phenomena in nature. For example, electricity and magnetism are two different phenomena, but it all comes under the theory of electromagnetism in physics. On the other hand, the reduction is breaking down a complex system into simpler systems to apply the laws of physics. The scope of physics can be better understood by looking at the sub-disciplines of physics as shown below in the flow chart. The subtopics of physics can be put into two domains. Macroscopic domain and the microscopic domain as shown below.


Factors responsible for the progress of physics

Many factors are responsible for the progress of physics throughout the years. Some of them are hypotheses, axioms, and modals. The basic laws of physics help us to better understand the cause-effect relationships about what we see every day. Hypothesis, axioms, and modals makes a complex problem to appear pretty simple. Physics is exciting in many ways. To some, the excitement comes from the fact that certain basic concepts and laws can explain a range of phenomena. For some others, the thrill lies in carrying out new experiments to unravel the secrets of nature. Basic meaning the 3 influencing factors are described below.


Hypothesis, axioms, and modals

Everything that happens around us cannot be proved exactly using principles of physics. The laws which we learn can be a hypothesis, axiom or modal. Hypothesis is just an idea that can be verified by experiments and observations. Axiom is a well-established true statement. Modal is a proposed theory to explain phenomena.


Concept of classical physics and modern physics

Classical physics deals with what we see in the day to day life but modern physics needs high-level maths and an imaginary line of conceptualization. Modern physics encompasses the concepts and topics that started emerging mainly at the beginning of the twentieth century.  Some of the topics under modern physics are the theory of relativity, quantum physics, astrophysics,  nuclear physics, particle physics, and quantum field theory.





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